With age and sun exposure, many things in the skin change. The skin's structural protein Collagen is damaged, resulting in lines and wrinkles. The epidermis thins and its turnover slows, leading to rough texture. The content of natural Hyaluronic Acid declines, contributing to dryness and unevenness of pigmentation occurs. Vitamin A can help your skin fight back. It invigorates skin, reversing the changes that come with time. The effects of Vitamin A have been called "normalization", switching the activity of older skin back to how it functioned when it was younger. In a sense, Vitamin A can turn back the clock, awaking the young skin that is hidden inside.
Vitamin A has many effects and is very potent, which means that only very small amounts are needed to improve skin. Vitamin A is so potent that it is described as a hormone-like growth factor for skin cells. So in that sense, it is very different from most other Vitamins. Here are examples of what Vitamin A does in the skin:
Stimulates blood flow. This improves skin color, helping to overcome dullness. And since reduced blood flow is involved in under-eye dark circles, Vitamin A helps to clear this darkness.
Stimulates cell metabolism and growth. That leads to effects throughout the skin. Increases production of Collagen so that the dermis can repair this critically important structural protein. That contributes to reduction in lines and wrinkles.
Inhibits Collagenase, the enzyme in skin that degrades Collagen. This ensures the newly formed Collagen will remain intact. Thickens epidermis and increases turnover. This helps improve skin roughness.
Increases production of Hyaluronic Acid, a natural water-binding skin polymer. This increases hydration to control dryness. Decreases production of excess melanin, the skin's pigment. That effect reduces skin color unevenness, including dark pigmentation in the under eye area that contributes to dark circles, especially in those with darker skin color.
There are several forms of Vitamin A. The one used in Regenerate Vitamin A Serum is Vitamin A palmitate (retinyl palmitate). This form is used because it is more stable than Vitamin A. It can be considered a pre-Vitamin that is converted to Vitamin A in the skin. Interestingly, retinyl palmitate is the form of the Vitamin that the body naturally stores for release and use when needed.